1. Since 2016, the healthcare sector in India has experienced a CAGR of approximately 22%. It is anticipated to reach USD 372 billion in 2022 at this rate. In terms of revenue and employment, healthcare has emerged as one of India's most important industries.
  2. With 4.7 million direct employees, the healthcare industry rose to become the fifth largest employer in 2015. According to gauges by the Public Ability Improvement Organization (NSDC) medical care can create 2.7 Million unexpected positions in India between 2017-22 - - more than 500,000 new positions each year.
  3. Hospitals, medical equipment and supplies, health insurance, clinical trials, telemedicine, and medical tourism are all components of India's healthcare sector. As a growing middle class and an aging population favor preventative healthcare, these market segments are expected to diversify.
  4. In addition, the rising prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and other lifestyle diseases in urban areas is increasing the demand for specialized medical care.


The most significant issues with health services are as follows:

  1. Ignoring Rural People: India's health care system is severely lacking in rural populations. It is primarily a hospital-based service. However, there are a lot of noes. despite the urban bias being evident in both PHCs and rural hospitals. Information about health shows that rural areas, where 75% of the population lives, have 16% of hospital beds and 31.5% of hospitals.

  2. Insufficient Investment in Health: The Government's 2002 National Health Policy states that Only 0.9 percent of GDP is contributed to the health sector. This is completely inadequate. Public health spending accounts for 17.3% of total health spending in India, 24.9% in China, 45.4 percent in Sri Lanka, and 44.1 percent in the United States. The country's poor health standards are primarily attributable to this.

  3. Inequality in society: In India, the expansion of health facilities has been extremely uneven. Health facilities are well-developed in cities and urban areas, but rural, hilly, and remote areas of the country are underserved. The SC/ST and poor are extremely far from modern health care.

  4. Deficiency of Clinical Staff: There is a shortage of medical personnel in India, including nurses and doctors. is a fundamental issue in the health industry. India had only 5.5 doctors per 10,000 people in 1999-2000, compared to 25 in the United States and 20 in China. In a similar vein, the number of marijuana dispensaries and hospitals is insufficient in light of the size of our population.

  5. Medical Studies: Drugs and vaccines for tropical diseases, which are typically ignored by international pharmaceutical companies due to their limited profitability potential, should be the primary focus of the country's medical research. The National Health Policy of 2002 recommends increasing funding for this area of medical research.

  6. Expensive Health Care: In India, health care, particularly allopathic care, is quite costly. The average person is hard hit by it. The prices of various essential medications have increased. As a result, alternative medical practices ought to receive a greater amount of attention. Systems like Ayurveda, Unani, and homeopathy are less expensive and will be more beneficial to the average person. In conclusion, the health system has numerous issues. Effective planning and allocating additional funds can solve these issues.

Reforms Needed in India’s Healthcare Sector

India must implement reforms in the healthcare sector to increase spending on health care, particularly on capital infrastructure, by 2 to 3 percent in the next five years and by almost 4 percent in 2030. Long-term assets should be created by adjusting healthcare costs.

The following are some ideas for the health care feeder:

  1. For the healthcare industry, a universally accessible All India Service (AIS) is required. With the assistance of the council, which includes a representative of the chief medical officer (CMO) and the nursing and support staff, this individual ought to be in charge of the district-level committee for health care work, which focuses on capital infrastructure. It will effectively simplify the development.

  2. From the current state list, health as a subject ought to be moved to the concurrent list. With localized changes, it will provide planning coherence.

  3. The poor infrastructure of the government is the result of the government's free medical care, which results in a budget deficit. The local, district, and state levels of the government hospital ought to exist. All PHCS and CHCS ought to fall under the local category, where they should receive free medical care and emergency assistance.

  4. District-level hospitals must be re-modelled according to the model of a private hospital at a cost that is manageable for the lower middle class. Free insurance is available to BPL cardholders and Ayushman Bharat beneficiaries, respectively. It will provide the hospital with the necessary infrastructure to maintain. The 20-bed ICU/ventilator setup can be implemented over time.

  5. A major hospital that will serve as a beacon for the entire state must be established at the state capital. It will direct state policy throughout.

  6. There should be a national health Corporation of India (NHCI), with the central government owning 51% of it and the states and private entities supporting the states sharing the remaining 51%. This would facilitate a three-tiered system.

  7. The private sector of India is accessible to less than 5% of the population and has a geographic presence. Utilizing the expertise of the private sector, public functionaries are able to mitigate this issue. The government doesn't care about making a profit, so the same inpatient department (IPD) care will cost almost half as much thanks to economies of scale.

  8. India needs to plan a proper pricing mechanism for its health infrastructure so that it can continue to function after 2035. Beneficiaries can be chosen using socioeconomic caste consensus (SECC)

  9. A funding pool for the creation of assets will be established for a monthly premium of just 400 for individuals and 1000 for families with up to five members. Everyone who uses public or private services or the individual must pay the premium.

  10. The need of the hour is the national health policy bill, which must be amended and has a vision for 2040 and goals to be met every five years. India needs to increase the number of critical care beds from the current 5 to more than 2 lakh by the end of the next decade.


Brief Background

  1. A tool that empowers people in all aspects of their lives is education. It broadens his perspective on the world as well as his skills, knowledge, and techniques. Additionally, it aids in instilling moral and ethical principles. In addition, employment opportunities increase significantly and income prospects improve.

  2. The quality of a nation's educational system is unquestionably critical to its development. The workforce's efficiency and productivity will rise as a result of adequate investments in education. In the end, people with a high level of education aid in accelerating the rate of economic growth, which in turn drives the country's expansion.

  3. The Emerging Directions in Global Education (EDGE) report from 2011 says that there are 26,478 higher education institutions in India, which is the most in the world. In comparison, there are 6,706 higher education institutions in the United States and 4,000 in China.

  4. The British colonial government introduced India's current educational system. The Macaulay minute, Wood's Dispatch, Curzon's education policy, the Sadler commission, and other documents laid the groundwork for the Indian education system during colonial times.

Constitutional Provisions on Education:

  1. Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009: This Act was passed to implement Article 21A. It also provided essential legal backing for the implementation of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has been in operation since 2000-2001.

  2. Article 21A: 86th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2002 introduced Article 21A which made elementary education a Fundamental Right rather than a Directive Principle.

  3. Article 45: It was amended to provide early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.

Issues facing Indian Education Sector

  1. Fund crunch: The main obstacle to the growth of education is a lack of funding. In Five-Year Plans, education expenditures have been decreasing. The majority of educational establishments lack science equipment, libraries, and other infrastructure due to insufficient funding. The desired outcomes cannot be achieved for this reason.

  2. High Costs Of Higher Education: College, expert and specialized schooling has become exorbitant in India. The fees charged by technical and professional institutions like IIMs are quite high. 2 lakh for MBA classes per semester. The common man cannot afford it. Entrepreneurs looking for a quick buck have increased as a result of privatization of higher education. Higher education is now much more expensive.

  3. Indian language neglect: English is the language of instruction, particularly in science. Therefore, rural students who lack English proficiency cannot effectively study science in English. They go through a lot; Languages in India are still in their infancy. Indian-language standard publications are unavailable.

  4. The issue of brain drain: Candidates who are smart, talented, and deserving of a job prefer to look for work abroad when they cannot find work in the country. As a result, our nation lacks talented individuals. "Brain drain" is the name given to this occurrence.

  5. Massive illiteracy: We are unable to achieve 100 percent literacy despite constitutional mandates and economic planning. -Even today, 35% of people are still illiterate. Nearly a third of the world's illiterates live in India, where the rate is even higher. All advanced nations are literate; The situation in India is very bad.

  6. Resources were squandered: General Education is the foundation of our educational system. Primary and secondary school dropout rates are extremely high. The majority of students between the ages of 6 and 14 drop out of school before they finish their education. It causes financial and human resources to be wasted.

  7. Geared toward general education: The general education component of our educational system The progress of technical and vocational education is not very good. As a result, our education has no impact. As a result, the number of educated people without jobs is on the rise. The government is now deeply concerned about this.

  8. Primary education issues: There are too many issues in our primary education. A large number of primary schools lack buildings, let alone basic amenities like urinals, electricity, furniture, study materials, and drinking water. A lot of primary schools only have one teacher, and some even have no teachers at all. As a result, there is a high dropout rate, which is concerning. In conclusion, we can state that education is expanding quantitatively, but qualitative development is still behind.

The Indian educational system must undergo the following modifications:

  1. End Rote learning: We've come a long way over the years; However, we have not yet been able to abandon rote learning. It leads to underdevelopment of innovative capacities of the students and enhances pressure on students. Therefore, the government must take the initiative to eradicate rote learning from all levels of education.

  2. Change Evaluation system: Marks continue to be the most important factor in determining a child's future, and students frequently view this as a burden. Students frequently underperform as a result of the stress of grades. Rather than zeroing in the assessment on a three-hour test, the focal point of assessment ought to be homeroom support by an understudy, tasks, correspondence and authority abilities and extra-curricular exercises. The students will only be evaluated at their best if they give their absolute best.

  3. Giving Equal respect for all subjects: We continue to exist in an educational system in which the science stream overtakes the other streams. Students are pressured to become a machine that only studies high-profile subjects, while subjects like languages, communications, and the arts are considered low-profile and not high-profile. Instead of distinguishing between subjects, teachers should encourage students to focus on their favorite subjects.

  4. Better training & education for teachers: Teachers play the most significant role in schools, so they should receive the best education possible. After all, the children are determining the nation's future. Teachers are frequently regarded as second mothers.

  5. Technology's introduction: We are all aware that we are in the fourth industrial revolution. We are in the midst of a technological renaissance, and in such a state, the education system and technology cannot be separated. To prevent technology from appearing alien to students in the future, it must be taught to them early on in their education. Indian schools must openly embrace technology and education in order to teach students about it, as this is where their futures will lie.

Steps taken by government

  1. RTE (Right to Education) Act:

Like the rest of the world, the GOI also came up with the Right to Education Act in 2009, which provides free elementary education to children between 6-14 years. Under this act, it became compulsory for the government to provide free elementary education to the children in the schools within 1 KM of their locality. This act also makes sure that, the government can charge no other extra from the student. Free education includes everything like books, uniforms, stationery, etc. Under this act, it’s mandatory for the government to meet the standard of education, by ensuring proper Pupil-Teacher-Ratio and qualified teachers.

  1. SWAYAM:

SWAYAM is an e-learning platform available for students across India, funded by the central government of India. This online learning platform was launched by the GOI in 2017, that turned out to be very useful during a pandemic. This online platform has a series of modules with recorded lectures on a variety of subject recorders by the professors of some of the premier institutes of India like IITs and IIMs. The portal is free to use and you can also be used it to pursue Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The SWAYAM has its online website from where students can access recorded lectures, and it also telecasts its lectures directly on TV on free DTH channels

  1. New Education Policy 2020:

The Government of India launched the new education policy on July 29th,2020, which mainly focuses on the early childhood education of children in India and improving the quality of education in government schools. The new education policy was launched at the time of the pandemic of COVID-19 and was very needful at that time, as the whole education system collapsed due to lockdowns. The new education policy 2022 worked on decreasing the school dropout rates, holistic and enjoyable learning, improving the skills of teachers, etc.

  1. Qualification of Teachers:

The quality of education was dropping in India due to less-qualified teachers and thus to address this issue the Government of India (GOI) amended Section 23(2) of the RTE Act under which the in-service training period was increased for underqualified teachers across all the states and UTs in India. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)  was chosen to provide free training to the under-qualified teachers teaching in government-aided, private, and un-aided schools in India.

  1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a Government of India initiative launched in 2001, and to date around 83 amendments have already been made under this scheme. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was the GOI of the very first initiative the improving the quality of education in India, this program was launched to provide free elementary education to all the children in India in a time-bound manner. This scheme also focused on the development of new schools and the reconstruction of old ones, recruitment of new and well-qualified teachers, etc.

  1. Program for International Students Assessment (PISA):

The GOI is planning to participate in the program for International Students Assessment (PISA), conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2021. This program will provide international exposure to the students learning in India and allows them to check the level of their competencies by taking part in this assessment. It will also allow students to prepare for competitive exams in their school only.

  1. National Achievement Survey (NAS):

The GOI conducts the National Achievement Survey in collaboration with NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) under which the students from classes 3,5,8, and 10 go under a survey, which shows the outcomes of their subjective learning. The outcomes of this survey prove to be very beneficial for the government to access the quality of education being provided in the schools.

Way Forward

Although numerous plans and initiatives have been implemented by the Indian government to raise the standard of education there, there is still a lot of room for improvement. India's low literacy rate is primarily attributable to the fact that many Indians continue to lack access to high-quality education. As a result, the Government of India (GOI) ought to focus on devising novel strategies for providing each child with free, mobile-friendly online education.


About HRD

  1. From a nation's point of view, Human Resources are the people who help the economy grow and develop.

  2. In general, Human resource development is the socio-economic upliftment of people through poverty alleviation, urban slum development, rural development, etc., is an example.

  3. People who are employed in an organized sector contribute to direct taxes. People who are employed in an unorganized sector also indirectly contribute to the economy. People who are involved in the public service are needed for the smooth operation of the government. Students who are getting educated are the future of human resources that the country would require. also helps to make human resources better.

Human Resources in India

  1. There are 1.3 billion people living in India. India has a lot to gain from its large population. The Demographic Dividend of the Indian population is another notable feature. It is used to describe people between the ages of 15 and 59. This age group makes up more than 64% of the Indian population.

  2. As a result, India has a huge potential to improve its economic growth by expanding employment opportunities and providing education. India must make use of its demographic dividend potential.


  1. Inspiring Entrepreneurship: For the following reasons, it's important to make more entrepreneurs. In the short term, it significantly lowers unemployment. In the long run, it makes more jobs and significantly lowers unemployment. To accomplish this, the government has launched its ambitious Startup India and Stand-up India programs: Over the past ten years, India's economy has grown dramatically. However, the population has not gained additional employment as a result of this growth. This is known as unemployment growth. There is a lot of room for growth in the manufacturing sector in terms of employment. However, the improvement of this sector necessitates additional government investments. As a result, the flagship Make in India Program was announced by the government.

  2. Enhancing Skill Development: Skill development is the process of teaching people skills that can be used in the workplace. The traditional educational system does not meet the employment requirements of the industries. In comparison to 75% in Germany and 68% in the UK, it is estimated that only 2.3% of the workforce in India has undergone formal skill training.

  3. Focus on Creating Employment Opportunities: in the Rural Areas Improving the skills of the rural population and establishing manufacturing bases in the rural areas are two ways to create employment opportunities in the rural area. Some rural labor-intensive industries include low-skilled food processing, manufacturing, and hand loom weaving.

Deficiencies in the HRD

  1. A lack of training capacity: The skill training was insufficient to guarantee employment for those who received it, which is why the employability rate remains extremely low.

  2. Inadequate entrepreneurial skills: Only 24% of PMKVY trainees launched their own businesses, despite the government's expectation that some would do so.

  3. Difficulties in Operation Low industry interface: The skill development industry performs poorly in terms of placement records and salaries offered because the majority of training institutes lack industry interface.

  4. Low student engagement: In comparison to their enrollment capacity, enrollment in skill institutes like ITIs and polytechnics remains low. This is because young people are unaware of the skill development programs.

  5. The unwillingness of employers: The problem of joblessness in India is a problem of skills as well as a problem of industrialists and small and medium-sized businesses not wanting to hire.

  6. Absence of valid Information: In terms of employment opportunities, the kind of skills required, and unreliable and contradictory private estimates, official data is limited and out-of-date.

SCHEMES LAUNCHED to improve human resources in India

  1. Skill India: Skill India initiative aims to provide skill training to 40 crore people in India. The broad components of the scheme are given in the chart below

  2. USTTAD (Upgrading Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) to conserve traditional arts/crafts and build capacity of traditional artisans and craftsmen belonging to minority communities.

  3. Nai Roshni: A leadership training programme for minority women; and MANAS (Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills) for upgrading entrepreneurial skills of minority youth.
    Startup India and Stand-up India programmes:

  4. Startup India scheme was launched for promoting entrepreneurship. They aim at creating more number of startups by providing easier access to funding and lesser government regulations to encourage them. Standup India scheme was launched to encourage entrepreneurship among women, Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). Rural India is also aimed to be covered through Deen Dayal Upadhyay Swaniyojan Yojana.

  5. Make in India: Make in India program was launched to encourage both foreign and domestic companies to manufacture their products in India. It aims at making India a global manufacturing hub. The following flowchart explains the major focus areas of Make in India.

  6. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), a dimension of skill India mission, under which the training fees were paid by the government. Its main tool was the “short-term training”, which could last between 150 and 300 hours, and which included some placement assistance by Training Partners upon successful completion of their assessment by the candidates.

  7. National Skill Development Mission: A three-tiered, high-powered decision-making structure. At its apex, the Mission’s Governing Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, provide overall guidance and policy direction.


  1. The annual skilling capacity currently exists at no more than 7 million. This is significantly less than the annual workforce entry of 12 million.

  2. There is no coordination, duplication, or waste of resources, and multiple schemes are managed by multiple ministries.

  3. There isn't a single regulator who can look over different skill initiatives. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is a regulator and policymaker.

  4. Poor training quality: The proliferation of training facilities devoid of any system for evaluating the training, trainer, or trainee's quality It is impossible for trainees with inadequate skills to obtain employment. ITIs lack practical training, and higher education lacks internship and apprenticeship facilities.

  5. Poor industry participation—only 16% of businesses conduct in-house training because the majority of them are MSMEs; in China, 80% of businesses conduct in-house training; there is no collaboration in course development; and the apprenticeship program is behind the times.

  6. A placement rate below 50% means that graduates cannot find employment.

  7. Shame in society: Because vocational education is still regarded as inferior to conventional education, fewer students are accepted (only 3% of senior secondary school students choose vocational courses).

Reforms Required

  1. Educational reforms (Structure and processes):

  2. Education Policy and laws, real universalisation of primary education, vocational training both within (beginning class 9) and outside the formal education system. Important to leverage secondary school platform to overcome capacity deficit of it is (e.g., China, Germany). National Skill Qualification Framework horizontal and vertical mobility between courses and between vocational and general education. Infrastructure – establishing world class schools/ universities.

  3. Improving learning outcomes – quality/updated course material, training the vocational teachers, course end evaluation, industry/government recognized certification, vocational education research institutions, combine classroom training with workplace training.

Linking trained persons to industry through placements in gainful employment.

  1. Inter-ministerial coordination – vocational training provided by multiple ministries which have their specific targets under National Skill development policy 2009 (20 ministries handling 73 different skill programs).

  2. Coordination with states – education is in concurrent list, so coordination with states is needed. Committed finances, effective monitoring, outcome orientation to primary, secondary, higher and vocational training each.

  3. Expansion of outreach – 90% of work age population have no vocational training, only 2% have received formal training, emerging fields need to be introduced.

  4. Quality of trainers – proliferation in number of trainers without any mechanism to check quality of training/ trainer. Incentive to industry, students, States, Local Self-government, civil society to develop strong partnership.

  5. Outcome based funding to improve efficiency, cost savings, reduced deficit.

  6. Motivate both trainer and trainee: Trainer to get bonus on achievement of certain predetermined targets. Trainee should give Rs 1000 as security deposit, which should be refunded after successful completion of training program.

Related committees

Sharda Prasad Committee

  1. There should be one system, with one law and one national vocational education and training system. The silos approach in which present vocational training happening in India should be curbed.

  2. A ranking of the ITIs on several parameters such as the one done by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) in tertiary education can be replicated.

  3. There is need for better oversight, with a national board for all skill development programmes.

  4. There should be mandatory rating systems for the ITIs that are published periodically.

  5. The core work (accreditation, assessment, certification and course standards) should not be outsourced.

  6. A unified legal framework can facilitate unification of various regulatory institutions. The absence of a law has only weakened regulation and monitoring.

  7. There is need for national vocational act that replaces all scattered regulations — recommended in the 12th Five Year Plan.

  8. Like every other education board (such as the CBSE), a board is required in vocational training that is accountable.

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