Summit was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Belgium to promote nuclear energy. Summit was attended by more than 30 nations (including India) and European Union.

    1. The historic inclusion of nuclear energy in the Global Stocktake at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP28) in 2023 led to the organization of an event.
    2. Inclusion in the Global Stocktake emphasized the need for rapid deployment of nuclear energy.
    1. Currently, nuclear energy is responsible for around 25 % of global low carbon electricity production.


    1. IAEA Genesis: Established in 1957 as an autonomous international organization within the United Nations system.
    2. Objective: Works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.
    3. Safeguard Mechanism: The global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and other treaties against the spread of nuclear weapons entrust the IAEA as the nuclear inspectorate.
    4. The IAEA has also developed additional protocol mechanisms; This enables the IAEA to verify the peaceful use of all nuclear materials in States.
    5. India is part of this protocol.
    6. Members: 178 (Including India)
    7. Key Initiative: Atoms4NetZero
    8. HQ: Vienna, Austria

    Relevance and Challenges of Nuclear Energy

    1. Clean source of electricity with a minimal carbon footprint is possible.
    2. Technological advancements such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) make it more feasible.
    3. SMRs are advanced nuclear reactors with a power capacity of up to 300 MW(e) per unit.
    4. Benefits of SMRs include:
      1. Perennial availability
    5. Challenges associated with SMRs include:
      1. Safety concerns due to the Fukushima nuclear disaster
      2. Vulnerability to cyber-attacks
      3. High upfront cost of building a nuclear power plant
      4. Long delays in construction

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