Achievements Of India in Science and Technology

Achievements Of India in Science and Technology


Achievements Of India in Science and Technology


India has a rich history of achievements in science and technology that spans over several millennia. Here are some notable achievements from ancient to modern times:

Ancient India (Before 500 BCE):

  1. Indian mathematicians developed the decimal system and the concept of zero, which laid the foundation for modern mathematics.
  2. Aryabhata, an ancient Indian mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, accurately calculated the value of pi (π) and proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system.
  3. Charaka, the father of Ayurveda, documented the principles of traditional Indian medicine in his treatise, Charaka Samhita.


Medieval India (500 CE to 1700 CE):

  1. Indian astronomers made significant contributions to the study of celestial bodies, including the discovery of lunar eclipses and the accurate calculation of planetary positions.
  2. Bhaskara II, a 12th-century Indian mathematician and astronomer, developed the concept of calculus and made important contributions to algebra and trigonometry.
  3. Sushruta, an ancient Indian surgeon, performed advanced surgeries like rhinoplasty (nose surgery) and cataract surgery.


Modern India (1700 CE to Present):

  1. Jagadish Chandra Bose, an Indian physicist and biologist, invented the Crescograph, a device that measures the growth of plants.
  2. C. V. Raman, an Indian physicist, discovered the Raman Effect, which explains the scattering of light by molecules and earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.
  3. Homi J. Bhabha, an Indian nuclear physicist, was instrumental in the establishment of India's nuclear power program.
  4. Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, an Indian aerospace scientist, played a key role in the development of India's ballistic missile program and became the President of India in 2002.


Indigenization of technology


Indigenization of technology refers to the process of developing and adopting technologies that are locally developed and suited to the specific needs and conditions of a country or region.

It involves creating and nurturing a self-reliant and sustainable technology ecosystem that can reduce dependence on imported technologies and products.

Examples of indigenization of technology:

  1. Indian Space Program: The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has been successful in indigenizing various technologies required for space exploration, such as satellite launch vehicles, remote sensing, and communication satellites like GSAT.
  2. Indian Defense Industry: India has made significant strides in indigenizing defense technology, including the development of indigenous fighter jets like Tejas, missiles like Akash, and submarines.
  3. Indigenous Energy Sources: India has been working towards developing indigenous energy sources such as solar and wind power, which can reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. Example Indigenous
  4. Digital India Initiative: The Digital India initiative aims to indigenize technology and develop a robust digital infrastructure that can support the country's growing digital economy.


Significance of Indigenisation of technology in India

  1. Self-reliance: Indigenisation of technology can help India reduce dependence on foreign countries for critical technologies and products, making the country more self-reliant and less vulnerable to external factors.
  2. Job creation: Indigenisation of technology can create job opportunities in various sectors, including manufacturing, research, and development, leading to the overall economic development of the country.
  3. Cost-effectiveness: Indigenisation of technology can reduce the cost of production by eliminating the need for expensive imports and can make products more affordable and accessible to the common people.
  4. Tailored to local needs: Indigenisation of technology can lead to the development of technologies that are tailored to the specific needs and conditions of the country, leading to more effective and efficient solutions to local problems.
  5. Promotion of innovation: Indigenisation of technology can promote innovation and entrepreneurship in the country, leading to the creation of new technologies and products that can benefit the society.


Some major issues with indigenisation in India

  1. Lack of funding: Indigenisation of technology requires significant investment in research and development, but India's investment in R&D is relatively low compared to other countries. This limits the development of new technologies and products.
  2. Lack of expertise: India still faces a shortage of skilled professionals in many areas of technology. This can limit the development of new technologies and make it difficult to compete with other countries.
  3. Dependence on imports: India still depends on imports for many critical technologies and products, making it difficult to achieve complete indigenisation. The country needs to reduce its dependence on imports and focus on developing indigenous technologies.
  4. Bureaucratic hurdles: India's bureaucratic system can be slow and inefficient, leading to delays in the implementation of policies and initiatives aimed at promoting indigenisation of technology.
  5. Lack of a supportive ecosystem: India needs a supportive ecosystem that fosters innovation and entrepreneurship. This includes policies that promote R&D, access to funding, and a supportive regulatory framework.


Overall, indigenisation of technology is critical for the development of India and can contribute to the country's overall growth and progress. It can help India become a self-sufficient and technologically advanced nation that can compete with the best in the world.

India needs to address these issues to achieve complete indigenisation of technology. The government needs to invest more in R&D, provide the necessary training and education, reduce dependence on imports, streamline bureaucratic processes, and create a supportive ecosystem that promotes innovation and entrepreneurship.


Development of New Technologies in India

  1. Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realising that it is a key element for economic growth. India ranks third among the most attractive investment destinations for technology transactions in the world. With more and more multinational companies setting up their R&D centres in India, the sector has seen an uptrend in investment in recent years.
  2. India is among the top countries globally in the field of scientific research, positioned as one of the top five nations in the field for space exploration. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). India is likely to take a leading role in launching satellites for the SAARC nations, generating revenue by offering its space facilities for use to other countries.
  3. By 2022, R&D expenditure is targeted to reach about 2% of the country’s GDP. The engineering R&D and product development market in India is forecast to post a CAGR of 12% to reach US$ 63 billion by 2025, from US$ 31 billion in 2019.
  4. IT spending in India will grow 7% YoY to reach US$ 101.8 billion in 2022, compared to U$ 81.89 billion in 2021. India’s medical technology sector is forecast to reach US$ 9.6 billion in 2022. In FY21, there were 5,018 R&D projects, 2,528 fellowships, 3,702 publications, 30,532 ongoing projects and 797 innovations in India.
  5. India has established itself as one of the leading nations in scientific research in the 21st century. For instance, India has risen to the top five nations in the world for space research thanks to its moon missions and Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
  6. In addition, there has been a rise in the number of technology business incubators with the goal of developing new ideas and connecting ideation to commercialization. With the launch of the National Artificial Intelligence Strategy (NITI Aayog), India has made headway in the rapidly expanding field of artificial intelligence and set the stage for further investigation into its potential.
  7. The Indian economy has undergone a revolution thanks to the internet, mobile phones, and other digital technologies. They have empowered customers and opened up new opportunities for businesses and entrepreneurs. New business models and traditional business models are being created by digital technologies. Additionally, they are altering government operations and enhancing service delivery.



In the Indian economy, some of the newest technologies include:

  1. Blockchain: Blockchain is a distributed database that makes transactions safe, transparent, and impossible to alter. It has the potential to alter numerous sectors, including real estate, healthcare, logistics, and banking.
  2. IoT: Internet of Things IoT alludes to the interconnectedness of actual gadgets and articles that are furnished with sensors and programming. It is making it possible for new applications in smart cities, connected homes, and wearables.
  3. AR: augmented reality A live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment enhanced by computer-generated sensory input like sound, video, graphics, or GPS data is known as augmented reality (AR). AR is being utilized in various applications like gaming, retail, training, and auto.
  4. AI: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to machines that are able to learn and function independently of human intervention. It is being utilized in a variety of industries, including agriculture, finance, manufacturing, and healthcare.


What's the significance of emerging technologies?

  1. Since they drive economic expansion, emerging technologies are significant. India has encountered quick monetary development lately, and a critical component behind this has been the reception of new innovations.
  2. Businesses can use new technologies to boost productivity and efficiency, resulting in increased profits and employment. Furthermore, the emergence of new markets and industries as a result of emerging technologies opens up even more avenues for economic expansion.


How have technologies aided India's economic expansion?

  1. The Indian economy has expanded significantly thanks to technology. From the rural area to the assembling area, innovation has further developed efficiency and effectiveness.
  2. For instance, technology has aided farmers in increasing yield and lowering input costs in the agricultural sector. Technology has aided in lowering production costs and enhancing quality control in the manufacturing sector.
  3. India has been able to generate employment and attract foreign investment as a result.


Major problems with India in developing new technologies:

  1. Limited investment in research and development: India still lags behind other developed countries in investment in research and development (R&D). This limits the development of new technologies, particularly in critical areas such as healthcare, energy, and agriculture.
  2. Lack of a skilled workforce: India still faces a shortage of skilled professionals in many areas of technology, including engineering, science, and IT. This limits the ability of the country to develop new technologies and can make it difficult to compete with other countries.
  3. Limited access to funding: Many promising startups and innovative companies in India struggle to get the necessary funding to develop and commercialize their technologies. This can limit the development of new technologies and prevent them from reaching their full potential.
  4. Complex regulatory environment: India's regulatory environment can be complex and time-consuming, particularly for new and innovative technologies. This can delay the development and commercialization of new technologies and make it difficult to compete with other countries.
  5. Limited industry-academia collaboration: Collaboration between industry and academia is essential for the development of new technologies, but this is still limited in India. This can limit the flow of ideas and expertise and make it difficult to develop cutting-edge technologies.

Overall, India needs to address these challenges to continue developing new technologies. The government needs to invest more in R&D, promote education and training in critical areas of technology, simplify the regulatory environment, provide better access to funding, and promote collaboration between industry and academia.

These steps can help India to continue its progress in developing new technologies and competing with other countries in this area.


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