1. Known as the 'Quadrilateral Security Dialogue' (QSD), the Quad is an informal strategic forum comprising four nations, namely - United States of America (USA), India, Australia and Japan.


  1. The aim of this grouping is to ensure a free and open international order based on the rule of law in the Indo- Pacific.


  1. Maritime security specially in the Indo-pacific region.
  2. Combating the Covid-19 crisis, especially vis-à-vis vaccine diplomacy,
  3. Addressing the risks of climate change,
  4. Creating an ecosystem for investment in the region and
  5. Boosting technological innovation.


Principles of Quad

  1. The motive behind the Quad is to keep the strategic sea routes in the Indo-Pacific free of any military or political influence.
  2. It is basically seen as a strategic grouping to reduce Chinese domination. The core objective of the Quad is to secure a rules-based global order, freedom of navigation and a liberal trading system.
  3. The coalition also aims to offer alternative debt financing for nations in the Indo-Pacific region.



  1. Following the Indian Ocean tsunami, India, Japan, Australia, and the US created an informal alliance to collaborate on disaster relief efforts.
  2. Quad as a formal group was first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007.
  3. However, due to Chinese resistance and reluctance shown by India, it could not move ahead.
  4. Later, during the 2017 ASEAN Summits, all four former members re-joined negotiations to revive the quadrilateral alliance.
  5. The Quad was upgraded to the ministerial level in September 2019.


Significance of Quad for India

  1. It is believed that the forum strategically counters China’s economic and military rise. Interestingly, if Chinese hostilities rise on the borders, India can take the support of the other Quad nations to counter the communist nation.
  2. In addition, India can even take the help of its naval front and conduct strategic explorations in the Indo-Pacific region.


Quad Summit in 2022

  1. The leaders of the Quad nations met on May 24, 2022 in Tokyo for the fourth time and the second time in person. The Quad summit witnessed the launch of a new initiative for continuous collaboration in the maritime domain, space, climate change, health, and cyber security.


  1. During the Quad summit, the member countries pledged to meet challenges for ensuring rules-based maritime order, including in the East and South China Seas, and strongly opposed any coercive, provocative, or unilateral actions that seek to change the status quo.


Problems related to QUAD

  1. Although there is potential for cooperation, the Quad remains a mechanism without a defined strategic mission.
  2. The entire focus on the Indo-Pacific makes the Quad a maritime, rather than a land-based grouping, raising questions whether the cooperation extends to the Asia-Pacific and Eurasian regions.
  3. The fact that India is the only member that is averse to a treaty alliance system, has slowed down the progress of building a stronger Quadrilateral engagement.


India should develop a comprehensive vision on the Indo-Pacific which would ideate on the current and future maritime challenges, consolidate its military and non-military tools, engage its strategic partners.

Must Check: Top IAS Coaching Institute In Delhi