IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GOVERNANCE

IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GOVERNANCE

28-02-2023

IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GOVERNANCE

 

WHAT IS GOVERNANCE?

  1. The term "governance" is not brand-new. It has existed since human civilization began. To put it simply, "governance" means: the procedure for making decisions and putting those decisions into action (or not) Corporate governance, international governance, national governance, and local governance are all examples of governance contexts.
  2. An analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made, as well as the formal and informal structures that have been established to arrive at and implement the decision. Since governance is the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented,
  3. Governance can encompass low-level responsibilities like issuing birth and death certificates and driving licenses to high-level responsibilities like setting the budget and managing foreign relations, among other things.

 

WHAT IS GOOD GOVERNANCE?

  1. The institutions, procedures, and practices by which issues of common concern are decided upon and regulated are referred to as governance. A normative or evaluative quality is added to the governance process by good governance.
  2. It primarily refers to the process by which public institutions guarantee the realization of human rights, conduct public affairs, and manage public resources from a human rights perspective.
  3. In a nutshell, the political and institutional procedures and outcomes that are required to achieve development objectives are part of good governance. The degree to which "good" governance fulfils its promise of human rights is the true test: rights in the areas of culture, politics, the economy, and society.
  4. The crucial inquiry is: Are the right to health, adequate housing, sufficient food, high-quality education, fair justice, and personal safety effectively guaranteed by governance institutions?

Good governance has 8 major characteristics.

It adheres to the rule of law and is participative, consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective, and inclusive.

It ensures that minorities' perspectives are taken into consideration, that the most vulnerable members of society are heard in decision-making, and that corruption is minimized. Additionally, it is adaptable to society's present and future requirements.

  1. Participation: is a crucial component of good governance, and participation by both men and women is essential. Direct participation or participation through legitimate intermediary institutions or representatives is an option. It is essential to emphasize that representative democracy does not necessarily imply that the needs of society's most vulnerable members will be taken into account when making decisions. Participation must be planned and informed. Both an organized civil society and freedom of association and expression are enshrined in this.
  2. Rule of law: A fair and impartial legal system is necessary for effective governance. Human rights, particularly those of minorities, must also be fully protected. An impartial and untouchable police force and an independent judiciary are required for impartial law enforcement.
  3. Transparency: The term "transparency" refers to the practice of making decisions and carrying them out in accordance with established guidelines. It also indicates that individuals who will be impacted by such decisions and their implementation can directly access information that is freely available. Additionally, it indicates that sufficient information is provided in media and formats that are simple to comprehend.
  4. Responsiveness: Great administration expects that foundations and cycles attempt to serve all partners inside a sensible time period.
  5. Consensus-oriented: In any given society, there are as many actors as there are viewpoints. In order to achieve broad consensus about what is in the best interest of the community as a whole and how this can be accomplished, good governance necessitates the mediation of the various interests that exist in society. Additionally, it necessitates a comprehensive and long-term perspective on what is required for sustainable human development and how to achieve its objectives. Understanding the social, cultural, and historical contexts of a society or community is the only way to achieve this.
  6. Equity and inclusion: The well-being of a society depends on ensuring that all its members do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society and have a stake in it. This necessitates providing opportunities for all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, to enhance or maintain their well-being.
  7. Efficiency and effectiveness: A good governance system makes the best use of the resources at its disposal and produces outcomes that satisfy society's needs. In the context of good governance, efficiency also includes environmentally friendly practices and resource conservation.
  8. Accountability: Good governance necessitates a high degree of accountability. Decisions and actions taken by an organization or institution can be internal or external, so not only must they be held accountable to the public but also to the private sector and civil society organizations. In general, people who will be impacted by an organization's or institution's decisions or actions hold it accountable. Without honesty and the rule of law, accountability cannot be enforced.

How are good governance and human rights linked?

  1. Human rights and good governance go hand in hand. Standards and principles for human rights give governments and other political and social actors a set of values to work by. Additionally, they supply these actors with a set of performance standards against which they can be held accountable. In addition, human rights principles guide the activities of good governance: Legislative frameworks, programs, budgetary allocations, and other measures may be influenced by them.
  2. Human rights, on the other hand, can't be respected and protected long-term without good governance. An environment that is supportive and enabling is necessary for the implementation of human rights. This includes the right legal structures and institutions, as well as the political, managerial, and administrative procedures that are in charge of addressing the rights and requirements of the population.

There are four ways in which human rights and good governance are linked:

  1. Good governance reforms of democratic institutions enable the public to participate in policymaking through formal institutions or informal consultations when led by human rights values. Additionally, they devise strategies for involving a variety of social groups in decision-making processes, particularly on a local scale. Lastly, they might push local communities and civil society to develop and articulate positions on issues that matter to them.
  2. Good governance reforms advance human rights when they improve the state's capacity to fulfil its responsibility to provide public goods that are essential for the protection of a number of human rights, such as the right to education, health, and food, to the public. Public service delivery Transparency and accountability mechanisms, culturally appropriate policy tools to ensure that services are accessible to all, and avenues for public participation in decision-making are examples of reform initiatives.
  3. Rule of law Concerning the rule of law, human rights-sensitive initiatives for good governance reform legislation and assist institutions such as courts, parliaments, and penal systems in better implementing that legislation. Advocacy for legal reform, raising public awareness of the national and international legal framework, and capacity-building or institution reform are all examples of good governance initiatives.
  4. Anti-corruption: Good governance initiatives use anti-corruption measures based on principles like participation, accountability, and transparency. Establishing institutions like anti-corruption commissions, making mechanisms for sharing information, and keeping an eye on how governments spend public funds and put policies into action are all examples of initiatives.

GOOD GOVERNANCE DAY IN INDIA

  1. Every year, in honour of former Indian Prime Minister Atal Vihari Vajpayee’s birthday, India observes "Good Governance Day". The day is devoted to former prime minister Atal Vihari Vajpayee.
  2. The purpose of Good Governance Day is to increase public access to various government programmes and services via good governance. It was established with the slogan "Good Governance through e-Governance."

How to promote good governance?

  1. Enhancing the governance structures: Parliament is India's most powerful representative body. The electorate is represented by the political representative. On numerous fronts, concerns are frequently expressed regarding the falling standards of participation quality, procedure, and other aspects. As a result, good parliamentary practices and procedures must be developed and Parliament must become a dynamic institution that adapts to changing times. enhancing the efficiency of the bureaucracy and civil service.
  2. In the end, policy implementation is the responsibility of the permanent executive. It is necessary to create a civil service that is flexible, enthusiastic, and responsive to people's needs. Creating an independent and accountable judiciary to reassure the public. The judiciary is to be regarded as an efficient means of upholding social justice and upholding the rule of law. Making the private sector accountable by adhering to rules and regulations, protecting consumers' interests, and using ethical business practices.
  3. Making citizens partners in all development activities and educating them about their rights and responsibilities. The issues and challenges of governance necessitate the efficient operation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, as well as the establishment of appropriate connections between them.
  4. Judiciary independence and parliamentary supremacy must be balanced in governance. Since the state, the private sector, and civil society all play a significant role in the governance process, it is necessary to clearly define their roles and responsibilities so that they can work toward genuine people-centered development initiatives.
  5. The executive, legislature, and judicial branches of the state are all permanent political institutions that carry out their functions. People always got the majority of their services from the government. The well-defined framework underpins the operation of the federal system of government at the central, state, and district levels. The broader concept of governance, which encompasses the government, the private sector, and the people, gradually emerged as a result of global developments over the past three decades.

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE INITIATIVE IN INDIA

To address governance concerns, India has implemented a variety of good governance projects. The following are a few of them:

  1. Sevottam model of service delivery
  2. Mission Karmayogi for Civil services reforms
  3. Citizen charter
  4. Codification of labour
  5. Insolvency and bankruptcy law
  6. Right to information act
  7. E-Governance and use of ICT tools like E-kuber, Digishala etc.
  8. 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment to decentralise people participation
  9. Aspirational district program to eliminate regional disparities
  10. Social audit
  11. Centralised public grievance redress and monitoring system (CPGRAMS for public grievance redress.)
  12. Impetus to social infrastructure projects, resulting in more jobs, improved ease of life, and equitable access to infrastructure for all, making growth more inclusive. Economic and social infrastructure projects are included in the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP).

Conclusion

There is need for aggregate endeavours with respect to the three constituents of' administration. Transparency, participation of the public, accountability, and adherence to the law are all required. All over the world, governments are looking for ways to improve governance. India has taken several of these steps. Proper government, private sector, and civil society reforms are necessary for these measures to be successful. Quality governance is the ultimate objective.

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