US Priority Watch List: India's Placement and Concerns

US Priority Watch List: India's Placement and Concerns


The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) today released its 2024 Special 301 Report on the adequacy and effectiveness of U.S. trading partners’ protection and enforcement of intellectual property (IP) rights.

What is the USTR's Special 301 Report?

  1. Overview: The USTR's 301 Special Report is an annual review mandated by the US Trade Act of 1974 to assess the IP protection and enforcement practices of US trading partners.
  2. Designation Criteria: The USTR considers factors such as the severity of IP concerns, economic impact on US rights holders, and progress made in addressing identified issues when designating countries to the PWL or Watch List.
  3. US Government Initiatives: The USTR uses various initiatives to promote IP protection with trading partners, including bilateral negotiations, WTO participation, and stakeholder engagement.

Criteria for Inclusion:

Countries are typically placed on the Priority Watch List based on factors such as:

  1. Piracy and Counterfeiting: High levels of copyright infringement, trademark counterfeiting, and patent infringement.
  2. Online Piracy: Inadequate enforcement against illegal streaming, downloading, and distribution of copyrighted content.
  3. Trade Secret Theft: Weak protection and enforcement against the theft of trade secrets.
  4. Patent Issues: Discriminatory patent practices or lack of effective patent protection.
  5. Market Access Barriers: Unfair restrictions on market access for legitimate businesses that rely on IPR.

Priority Watch List:

  1. Argentina
  2. Chile
  3. China
  4. India
  1. Indonesia
  2. Russia
  3. Venezuela


Watch List:

  1. Algeria
  2. Barbados
  3. Belarus
  4. Bolivia
  5. Brazil
  6. Bulgaria
  7. Canada
  1. Colombia
  2. Ecuador
  3. Egypt
  4. Guatemala
  5. Mexico
  6. Pakistan
  7. Paraguay
  1. Peru
  2. Thailand
  3. Trinidad and Tobago
  4. Türkiye
  5. Turkmenistan
  6. Vietnam


India's Placement and Concerns:

  1. Consistent Placement: India has consistently been placed on the 'priority watch' list, indicating significant concerns regarding IP protection, enforcement, and market access for American IP stakeholders.
  2. Inadequate IP Enforcement: The USTR report identifies shortcomings in India's IP enforcement, including high rates of online piracy, trademark opposition case backlogs, and insufficient legal mechanisms for trade secret protection.
  3. Copyright Compliance Issues: India is urged to fully implement WIPO Internet Treaties and avoid extending copyright licenses to interactive transmissions to protect copyright holder rights.
  4. Trade Policy Forum Progress: While some progress has been noted under the US-India Trade Policy Forum, several longstanding concerns remain unaddressed.
  5. India's Stance on Intellectual Property Rights: India maintains that its laws comply with the WTO's TRIPS Agreement and is not obligated to make changes based on other international rules.

Recommendations for Moving Forward:

  1. Establishing a Joint IP Commission: Create a permanent India-US IP Commission with representatives from government, industry, and academia to foster dialogue, identify areas of mutual concern, and develop joint action plans.
  2. Capacity Building: The US can offer technical assistance to India's patent office and judiciary to streamline patent application processes and enhance training on IP enforcement mechanisms.
  3. Transparency and Stakeholder Engagement: Both countries should promote increased transparency in IP decision-making processes through regular consultations with industry stakeholders.
  4. Dispute Resolution through Arbitration: Establish a streamlined arbitration mechanism for resolving IP disputes between companies, drawing on successful models like the Singapore-India CEPA.


By adopting a collaborative approach, enhancing capacity building, and establishing efficient dispute resolution mechanisms, India and the US can overcome the 'Priority Watch List' narrative. This innovative approach, inspired by successful global practices, can pave the way for a more harmonious and productive relationship, promoting innovation and economic growth for both nations.

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