Awareness in the field of computers

Awareness in the field of computers


Awareness in the field of computers



  1. A computer is an electronic device that can perform various operations and tasks based on a set of instructions, also known as software or programs. It consists of hardware components such as a central processing unit (CPU), memory, input/output devices, and storage devices.

  2. Computers are capable of performing a wide range of tasks, from basic calculations to complex data analysis, communication, and entertainment.


Generations Of Computer Development


The development of computers can be broadly categorized into five generations, as follows:

  1. First Generation (1940s - 1950s): The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes as the primary electronic component for processing data. These computers were huge and consumed a lot of power. Some examples of first-generation computers are ENIAC, UNIVAC, and EDVAC.

  2. Second Generation (1950s - 1960s): The second generation of computers used transistors instead of vacuum tubes, which made them more efficient, faster, and smaller in size. Some examples of second-generation computers are IBM 1401 and IBM 7090.

  3. Third Generation (1960s - 1970s): The third generation of computers used integrated circuits (ICs) made of silicon, which allowed for further miniaturization and improved performance. Some examples of third-generation computers are IBM System/360 and DEC PDP-11.

  4. Fourth Generation (1970s - 1990s): The fourth generation of computers saw the emergence of microprocessors, which enabled the integration of an entire CPU onto a single chip. This led to the development of personal computers (PCs) and the widespread use of computing in various industries. Some examples of fourth-generation computers are IBM PC, Apple Macintosh, and Commodore 64.

  5. Fifth Generation (1990s - present): The fifth generation of computers focuses on the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and parallel processing. These computers use advanced technologies such as neural networks, natural language processing, and expert systems to provide intelligent solutions for various applications. Some examples of fifth-generation computers are IBM Watson and Google DeepMind.


History Of Computers in India

The history of computers in India dates back to the 1950s when the country started developing its own computing capabilities. Some key events in the development of computers in India are:

  1. In 1955, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai installed a digital computer, which was one of the first computers in Asia.

  2. In 1964, the Indian government established the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in Kolkata, which became a leading center for computer science research and education.

  3. In the 1970s, the Indian government launched several initiatives to promote the use of computers in various industries and sectors. The Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) and the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) were established to manufacture and supply computers and related hardware.

  4. In 1984, the Indian government launched the National Informatics Centre (NIC) to provide computing and networking services to government agencies and departments.

  5. In the 1990s, India witnessed a significant growth in the software industry, with the rise of companies like Infosys, Wipro, and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS). These companies provided software development, IT consulting, and other services to clients around the world.

  6. In 2001, the Indian government launched the e-Governance initiative, which aimed to provide government services to citizens electronically. This initiative helped in the adoption of technology across various government departments and sectors.

  7. Today, India is one of the leading countries in the field of information technology, with a thriving software industry, a large pool of skilled professionals, and a growing startup ecosystem. Indian companies and professionals are making significant contributions to the global technology industry, and the country is poised to play an increasingly important role in shaping the future of computing and technology.


Supercomputer in India



  1. A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS).

  2. A supercomputer is a type of computer that is designed to perform highly complex and demanding tasks that require a large amount of processing power and memory. Supercomputers are capable of executing trillions of calculations per second, which makes them ideal for tasks such as weather forecasting, scientific simulations, and advanced data analysis.

  3. Supercomputers are typically built with specialized hardware components that allow them to perform computations more quickly than traditional computers. They often use multiple processors or cores, high-speed interconnects, and specialized memory systems to achieve high levels of performance.

  4. Supercomputers are used in a wide range of fields, including scientific research, engineering, and finance. They are used to simulate complex systems and phenomena, analyze large datasets, and solve challenging computational problems.


Key developments in the field of supercomputing in India:

  1. In 1987, India's first supercomputer, the PARAM 8000, was developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in Pune. This computer had a processing speed of 1 million instructions per second (MIPS) and was used for scientific research and simulations.

  2. In 1990, the PARAM 8600, a more powerful version of the PARAM 8000, was developed. This computer had a processing speed of 16 MIPS and was used for weather forecasting, oil exploration, and other scientific applications.

  3. In 1991, the Indian government launched the Supercomputer Education and Research Centre (SERC) at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. This center has played a key role in the development of supercomputers in India and has been involved in several high-profile projects.

  4. In 1998, the C-DAC developed the PARAM 10000, which was the first supercomputer in India to achieve a processing speed of 1 gigaflop (billion floating-point operations per second). This computer was used for weather forecasting, molecular modeling, and other scientific applications.

  5. In 2012, India's first petaflop supercomputer, the PARAM Yuva II, was developed by the C-DAC. This computer had a processing speed of 1.5 petaflops (1.5 quadrillion floating-point operations per second) and was used for scientific research, weather forecasting, and other applications.

  6. In 2018, India unveiled the Pratyush supercomputer. Developed by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) and the C-DAC, this computer has a processing speed of 3.7 petaflops and is used for weather forecasting, climate modeling, and other scientific applications.

  7. India, till 2022 has developed 15 supercomputers, and the newest supercomputer in India is PARAM Ananta. PARAM Siddhi AI is the fastest supercomputer in India, with a processing power of 6.5 Petaflops. It is embedded with AI technology for immediate processing and more accurate predictions.


National Supercomputing Mission



  1. The Mission envisages empowering our national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities. These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN).

  2. The NKN is another programme of the government which connects academic institutions and R&D labs over a high speed network. Academic and R&D institutions as well as key user departments/ministries would participate by using these facilities and develop applications of national relevance.

  3. The Mission also includes development of highly professional High Performance Computing (HPC) aware human resource for meeting challenges of development of these applications. The Mission implementation would bring supercomputing within the reach of the large Scientific & Technology community in the country and enable the country with a capacity of solving multi-disciplinary grand challenge problems.

  4. The Mission would be implemented and steered jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) at an estimated cost of Rs.4500 crore over a period of seven years.


  1. To make India one of the world leaders in Supercomputing and to enhance India’s capability in solving grand challenge problems of national and global relevance

  2. To empower our scientists and researchers with state-of-the-art supercomputing facilities and enable them to carry out cutting-edge research in their respective domains

  3. To minimize redundancies and duplication of efforts, and optimize investments in supercomputing

  4. To attain global competitiveness and ensure self-reliance in the strategic area of supercomputing technology


Application of Supercomputers

  • Climate Modelling

  • Weather Prediction

  • Aerospace Engineering including CFD, CSM, CEM

  • Computational Biology

  • Molecular Dynamics

  • Atomic Energy Simulations

  • National Security/ Defence Applications

  • Seismic Analysis

  • Disaster Simulations and Management

  • Computational Chemistry

  • Computational Material Science and Nanomaterials

  • Discoveries beyond Earth (Astrophysics)

  • Large Complex Systems Simulations and Cyber Physical Systems

  • Big Data Analytics

  • Finance

  • Information repositories/ Government Information Systems


Quantum computing in India



  1. Quantum Technology is based on the principles of Quantum mechanics developed in the early 20th century to describe nature at the scale of atoms and elementary particles. Using quantum superposition, a set of unbreakable codes or super-speedy information processing, quantum computers are able to mimic several classical computers working in parallel.

  2. Quantum technology is manifested through applications in secure communication, disaster management through better prediction, computing, simulation, chemistry, healthcare, cryptography, imaging among others. Scientists have expanded quantum theory to understand biological phenomena such as smell, consciousness, enzyme catalysis, photosynthesis, avian navigation like that of the Robin, origin of life and effects on coronavirus.

  3. Some stalwart quantum Indians include Professor Satyendra Nath Bose, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman and Professor Meghnad Saha. India is currently at the forefront of tapping the second quantum revolution through massive investments in the field.

  4. Union Budget 2020-21 proposed to spend ₹8,000 crore ($ 1.2 billion) on the newly launched National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications (NMQTA) and ₹ 3660 Crore for National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber Physical Systems (NM-ICPS).

Four domains of quantum technologies:

  • Quantum communication

  • Quantum simulation

  • Quantum computation

  • Quantum sensing and metrology



Some recent developments

  1. In May 2021, technology giant IBM announced a partnership with eleven reputable academic institutions, including the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, to enable access to its quantum systems over the cloud to hasten advanced training and research in quantum computing.

  2. The Indian Quantum Computing Start-Ups: Numerous Start-Ups have also appeared, and as a result, they are making progress in this field. Examples include QNu Labs in Bangalore and BosonQ in Bhilai.

  3. QNu Labs is a cybersecurity business with its main office in Bengaluru, India. It holds the distinction of being the first company in India to create commercial cybersecurity products effectively.

  4. BosonQ Psi is a software company which uses the capabilities of quantum computing to create simulations. To highlight near-term value adds to their customers, the company develops simulation capabilities using a hybrid infrastructure of quantum computers and conventional high-performance computers (HPC). BosonQ is also investigating novel simulation techniques for future fault-tolerant quantum computers.

  5. The Indian Army established a quantum computing facility and an AI centre at a military engineering institute in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, in December 2021. The National Security Council Secretariat also supports it (NSCS).

  6. In October 2021, the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) opened a quantum communication lab. More than 100 kilometres of common optical fibre can be supported by it.

  7. To advance the development of quantum technology, the Department of Science and Technology and approximately 13 research groups from IISER Pune established the I-HUB Quantum Technology Foundation (I-HUB QTF).

  8. Last year, NASSCOM reported that quantum technologies can add a value of $310 billion to the Indian economy by 2030. The Indian Government has in fact expressed interest in developing a quantum computer in collaboration with Finland.



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